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 المصطلحات الفنية للسيارات

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تاريخ التسجيل : 21/09/2010
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مُساهمةموضوع: المصطلحات الفنية للسيارات   الجمعة فبراير 04, 2011 8:18 am


Sensors, Brakes, Engine, Fuel, Electricity & Electronics, Vehicle Types, # Transmission, * (Department, Agency, Society)

4x2 Four by two #The term used describe a two-wheel drive vehicle. The "4" indicates the number of wheels of the vehicle and the "2" indicates the number of wheels that are driven by engine.
4x2 سيارات الدفع الثنائي
4x4 Four by four #The term used describe a four-wheel drive vehicle. The first "4" indicates the number of wheels of the vehicle and the second "4" indicates the number of wheels that are driven by engine.
4x4 سيارات الدفع الرباعي دفع عجلتين ويمكن تحويلها إلى أربع عجلات دفع
4WAL 4 Wheel Anti Lock brake
4WAL نظام الدفع بجميع العجلات
(جميع العجلات)
4WD Four-wheel drive #4WD is a system in which the engine's power is (or can be) transmitted to all four wheels through a two-speed transfer case and drive axles. The transfer case's main function is to provide a gear-reduction feature and the ability to shift the vehicle into four-wheel "Low" range, which is designed for severe conditions such as pulling through heavy snow or mud, or slowly climbing up (or inching down) a backwoods hunting trail.
A method of driving a vehicle by applying engine torque to all four wheels. Various schemes are used for 4WD including part-time, full-time and variable four-wheel drive. The primary advantage of four-wheel drive is increased traction—which is especially useful for off-road excursions or severe weather driving, but is of little practical value for normal driving. Because of the added friction in the drivetrain, a four-wheel drive vehicle typically gets significantly lower fuel mileage than a front- or rear-wheel drive vehicle. To help cut the drag, most 4WD drivetrains have a transfer case that allows the driver to select either two- or four-wheel drive depending on driving conditions. In trucks, you’ll often find locking hubs on the front wheels that can be locked in the "on" or free-wheeling position as needed. Some performance cars have full-time variable four-wheel drive and use a computer-controlled transfer case to route power between the wheels
4WD سيارات الدفع الرباعي الدائم
A

A Ampere Unit of measuring the electric current

A أمبير وحدة قياس شدة التيار
AAA American Automobile Association
AAA جمعية السيارات الأمريكية
ABS Antilock braking system

ABS نظام منع غلق العجلات
AC Alternating Current

AC تيار متردد
ACC Adaptive Cruise Control A radar sensor is linked to the ECU which slows the vehicle and brakes if necessary.
ACC مثبت السرعة القابل للتكييف
A/C Air Conditioner A system that cools and dehumidifies air entering the passenger compartment. The system uses a refrigerant to cool the air and carry heat away from the passenger compartment. Major system components include a compressor, condenser, evaporator, accumulator or receiver/dryer, and orifice tube or expansion valve. Do not intermix different types of refrigerants in an A/C system. Use the type specified by the vehicle manufacturer (R12 for most 1994 & older vehicles, or R134a for most 1995 and newer vehicles). See also Retrofit.
A/C المكيف
AFV Alternative fuel vehicle

AFV مركبة مسيرة بوقود بديل
AGV Automated guided vehicle

AGV مركبة موجّه ذاتياً
AH Ampere-Hour A unit of electrical capacity. Tells you how much power the battery will store. Current multiplied by time in hours equals ampere-hours. A current of one amp for one hour would be one amp-hour; a current of 3 amps for 5 hours would be 15 AH CRLF.
Ampere-Hour rating: is the amount of steady current that a fully charged battery can supply for 20 hours at 26.7oC without the cell voltage falling below 1.75 volts or 10.5 volts at terminals.
AH أمبير- ساعة وحدة قياس السعة الكهربائية. تقيس مقدار الطاقة التي يمكن للبطارية أن تختزنها. التيار مضروب في الوقت بالساعة. تيار مقداره 1 أمبير لمدة ساعة يكون 1 أمبير- ساعة. تيار مقداره 3 أمبير لمدة 5 ساعات يساوي 15 أمبير- ساعة.
معدل الأمبير- ساعة: هو مقدار التيار الخارج من البطارية المشحونة بالكامل بمعدل ثابت لمدة 20 ساعة عند درجة حرارة 26.7 درجة مئوية بدون أن يهبط جهد الخلية عن 1.75 فولت أو جهد البطارية عن 10.5 فولت.
AHC Active Height Control AHC systems exist under many trade names, including Electronic Height Control (EHC), Variable Ride-Height Suspension (VRHS), and pneumatic suspension systems.
AHC التحكم الإيجابي في الارتفاع
AMT Automated Manual Transmission
AMT ناقل حركة ذاتي النقل اليدوي
ANC Active noise control
ANC التحكم الايجابي في الضوضاء
API American Petroleum Institute
API المعهد الأمريكي للبترول
ASE Automotive Service Excellence *ASE is a nonprofit, nonaffiliated organization formed to help assure the highest standards in automotive service. It directs an organized program of self-improvement.
ASE منظمة تميز الخدمة للسيارات
ASR Acceleration slip regulation
Automatic slip regulation See also Traction Control System (TCS)
ASR التحكم في الانزلاق الناتج عن التسارع
ATIS Automatic Tire Inflation System
ATIS نظام النفخ الذاتي للإطار
ATF Automatic transmission fluid A special kind of oil for use in automatic transmissions. There are several types: Dexron II, Dexron III, Type F, Mercon, Mercon V, Chrysler 7176 and several varieties of Chrysler ATF-Plus. All are "friction-modified" lubricants except Type F. Dexron II and Mercon have similar additive packages as do Dexron III and Mercon V. Even so, use only the type of ATF specified by the vehicle manufacturer. Using the wrong type of ATF can cause transmission problems. If you do not know what type of fluid the transmission takes, READ THE OWNER’S MANUAL! Some dipsticks are also marked as to the type of ATF required. "Universal" ATF fluids are available that supposedly meet the OEM requirements for many friction-modified applications, but make sure the label says it meets the specific vehicle requirements before using. The newer ATFs such as Dexron III and Mercon V are longer lived than earlier ATFs, but can still oxidize if the transmission runs too hot. Trailer towing is especially hard on ATF unless the transmission is equipped with an auxiliary oil cooler. Recommended change interval for older vehicles is every 24,000 to 30,000 miles. For newer vehicles, see the owners manual.
ATF سائل ناقل الحركة الأوتوماتيكي
ATV All-terrain vehicle

ATV سيارة جميع أنواع الأراضي
AWD All wheel drive #A vehicle (usually a car) where all four wheels are driven. Most are fulltime systems for year-round driving, and use a viscous fluid coupling center differential instead of a transfer case to route drive torque to all four wheels. This allows the front and rear wheels to turn at slightly different speeds when turning on dry pavement.
AWD سيارات دفع رباعي مستمر
B

BA Brake Assist which automatically applies full braking power when a panic stop is sensed via rapid pedal movement, such as when the driver stabs the brakes.
BA تعضيد (مساعدة) الفرامل
BDC Bottom dead center

BDC النقطة الميتة السفلى
BHP Brake horse power

BHP القدرة الفرملية
BJI Ball joint inclination
BJI
BMEP (bmep) Brake mean effective pressure A term relating to the pressure in the cylinder calculated form the horsepower reading on a dynamometer.
BMEP (pmep) الضغط المتوسط الفعال الفرملي هو مصطلح له علاقة بالضغط داخل اسطوانة المحرك يحسب من قراءة القدرة التي نحصل عليها باستخدام فرملة المحرك.
BPMV Brake pressure modulator valve

BPMV صمام التحكم في ضغط الفرامل
BTU British thermal unit The amount of heat required to raise 1 pound of water 1 F at sea level
BTU الوحدة الحرارية الإنجليزية كمية الحرارة اللازمة لرفع 1 رطل ماء 1 درجة فهرنهايت عند مستوى البحر
C


CCA Cold Cranking Amps Cold Cranking Amps is a rating used in the battery industry to define a battery's ability to start an engine in cold temperatures. The rating is the number of amps a new, fully charged battery can deliver at 0° Farenheit for 30 seconds, while maintaining a voltage of at least 7.2 volts, for a 12 volt battery. The higher the CCA rating, the greater the starting power of the battery.
CCA تيار تقويم المحرك على البارد
CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons A family of manmade chemicals containing chlorine that include R12 automotive air conditioning refrigerant. CFCs have been blamed for a deterioration of the Earth’s protective ozone layer. CFCs have been phased out of production by international agreement.
CFCs
CG Center of gravity
CG مركز ثقل الوزن
CI Compression ignition
CI إشعال بالضغط
CNG Compressed natural gas
CNG غاز طبيعي مضغوط
CO Carbon Monoxide A deadly gas that results from the incomplete burning of gasoline inside the engine, carbon monoxide is considered to be a serious air pollutant. You can’t see it or smell it, but it can kill in very small concentrations. Because of this you should never run an engine inside a closed garage. Various means are used to reduce the amount of CO produced by an engine, and primary among these is the catalytic converter. The converter "reburns" CO in the exhaust and converts it into harmless carbon dioxide.
CO أول أكسيد الكربون
COP Coil-On-Plug ignition A type of distributorless ignition system where individual ignition coils are mounted directly over each spark plug. No spark plug wires are used.
COP إشعال ملف على شمعة الإشعال
CPS Camshaft (or Crankshaft) Position Sensor The camshaft position sensor monitors engine speed and piston position. These input signals to the ECM are used to control fuel injection, ignition timing and other functions. The camshaft position sensor has a rotor plate and a wave-forming circuit. The rotor plate has 360 slits for a 1°(POS) signal and 6 slits for a 120°(REF) signal.
The wave-forming circuit consists of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) and photo diodes. The rotor plate is positioned between the LED and the photo diode. The LED transmits light to the photo diode. As the rotor plate turns, the slits cut the light to generate rough-shaped pulses. These pulses are converted into on-off signals by the wave-forming circuit and sent to the ECM.
CPS
CTS Coolant temperature sensor The engine coolant temperature sensor is used to detect the engine coolant temperature. The sensor modifies a voltage signal from the ECM. The modified signal returns to the ECM as the engine coolant temperature input. The sensor uses a thermistor that is sensitive to the change in temperature. The electrical resistance of the thermistor decreases as temperature increases.
CTS حساس درجة حرارة سائل التبريد
CUV Crossover Utility Vehicle A crossover SUV (also called CUV for Crossover Utility Vehicle) or XUV is an automobile with a sport utility vehicle appearance but is built upon a more economical and fuel-efficient car-based platform.
CUV

CV joint (1) Constant velocity joint #A Constant Velocity Joint is one that provides consistent driveshaft speeds regardless of the operating angle of the joint. CV joints are used primarily in on the driveshafts of front-wheel drive vehicles, and they come in two basic varieties: the Rzeppa ball type joints (which you’ll find on the outer end of the driveshaft) and tripod joints (which are used on the inner end).
CV joint (1) وصلة السرعة الثابتة (الكبالن)
CV (2) Commercial vehicles

CV (2) السيارات التجارية (الشاحنات)
CVT Continuously variable transmission #
CVT نظام نقل الحركة المستمر
D

DC Direct current

DC تيار مستمر
DD Direct Drive (transmission)
DD نقل مباشر (صندوق سرعات)
DIS Distributor-less ignition system An ignition system that does not use a distributor to route high voltage to the spark plugs. The high voltage plug wire runs directly from the ignition coil to the spark plug. Some DIS systems have one coil for every two spark plugs (a shared system), while others have a separate coil for each spark plug (See Coil-On-Plug Ignition). Eliminating the distributor makes the system more reliable and eliminates maintenance.
DIS نظام الإشعال بدون موزع
DIY job do-it-yourself job
DIY jog عملية تقوم بها بنفسك
DMM Digital multi meter Also, called digital volt/ohmmeter (DVOM).
DMM مقياس رقمي متعدد القياس
DMV Department of Motor Vehicles
DMV قسم المركبات الآلية (السيارات)
DOD Displacement on demand Cylinder Deactivation, Multiple Displacement System (MDS), or Variable Cylinder Management.
DOD تعديل سعة المحرك عن الحاجة
DOE Department of Energy *The U.S. Department of Energy
DOE قسم الطاقة
DOHC Dual over head cam

DOHC نظام عمود كامة علوي مزدوج
DOT Department of Transportation *The U.S. Department of Transportation
DOT قسم النقل
DOT 3, DOT 4, DOT 5 DOT 3 BRAKE FLUID; Brake fluid that meets the Department of Transportation specifications for glycol based fluids with a wet boiling point (lowest allowable after it’s been in use) of 284 degrees F. and a dry boiling point of 401 degrees F. DOT 3 fluid is the type commonly specified by most vehicle manufacturers. Because it is glycol based, it absorbs moisture over time (hygroscopic). This lowers its effective boiling point and promotes internal corrosion in the brake system. For this reason, the brake fluid should be replaced periodically (every two years is recommended by many experts) and every time the brakes are relined or serviced.
DOT 4 BRAKE FLUID; A "heavy-duty" glycol based brake fluid with a slightly higher wet boiling point of 311 degrees F. and a dry boiling point of 446 degrees. This type of fluid is sometimes specified for performance vehicles or those subject to high brake temperatures. DOT 5 BRAKE FLUID; A silicone based fluid that does not absorb moisture and has a boiling point of at least 500 degrees F. DOT 5 fluid does not have to be changed periodically and can minimize brake system corrosion, but is very expensive compared to DOT 3 or DOT 4 fluid (it costs three to five times as much). It will not mix with DOT 3 or DOT 4 brake fluid. DOT 5 is NOT recommended for any vehicle with ABS brakes because it tends to aerate when cycled rapidly through small orifices.
DOT 3, DOT 4, DOT5
DSC Dynamic Stability Control
DSC التحكم في الاتزان الديناميكي
DSG Direct Shift Gearbox #The DSG removes the clutch pedal and associated operation, and places it under the control of computer chips and hydraulic servos. When left in full auto mode, it's as smooth as or smoother than any conventional automatic.
DSG نقل مباشر لصندوق التروس
DTCs Diagnostic trouble cods Computerized engine control systems have a certain amount of built-in self-diagnostic capability to detect problems that affect engine performance and emissions. The same is true for the antilock brake system and other onboard systems that are computer controlled. When a fault is detected, the computer will store a diagnostic trouble code in its memory and illuminate the "Check Engine" light. On some vehicles, the computer can be put into a special diagnostic mode by grounding certain terminals on a diagnostic connector. This will cause the Check Engine or other lights to flash out the fault code. On many vehicles, though, a scan tool must be plugged into the computer system to access and read the codes.
DTCs رمز (شفرة) تشخيص العطل
E

EBD Electronic brake-force distribution which automatically applies more braking power to the wheels with the best grip.
EBD التوزيع الإليكتروني لقوة الفرامل
ECB Electronically controlled brakes

ECB التحكم الإليكتروني للفرامل
ECT Engine coolant temperature Engine coolant temperature sensor. Also called coolant temperature sensor (CTS).
ECT حساس درجة حرارة سائل تبريد المحرك
ECU Electronic control unit

ECU وحدة تحكم اليكترونية
eCVT Electronically controlled, continuously variable transmission The eCVT in the hybrid car is integral with the generator motor. It harnesses internal combustion and electric power sources to drive the wheels.
eCVT نظام نقل الحركة المستمر ذو التحكم الإليكتروني
EDCU Electronic diesel control unit
EDCU وحدة التحكم الإليكترونية للديزل
EDTC Engine drag traction control EDTC prevents excessive slip of the driven wheels due to engine drag torque (engine brake). This may occur when driving on slippery road surface if the driver change to lower gear or suddenly lifts his foot off the throttle.
EDTC وحدة التحكم .............
EFI Electronic fuel injection Abbreviation for Electronic Fuel Injection. This type of system uses computer-controlled fuel injectors to spray fuel into the engine rather than mechanically controlled injectors or a carburetor. EFI comes in several varieties: "throttle body injection" (See TBI), "multi-port injection" (See MFI or PFI) or Sequential Fuel Injection (SFI). Electronic fuel injection is considered to be superior to carburetion because it allows more precise fuel metering for easier starting, lower emissions, better fuel economy and performance.
EFI حقن وقود إليكتروني
EGO Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensor The EGO sensor is mounted in the exhaust system upstream of the catalyst. It detects excess oxygen in the exhaust stream. Oxygen, or the lack of it, indicates whether the air/fuel is lean or rich of the stoichiometric ratio. The EGO sensor is also known as a Lambda-Sond sensor or O2 sensor.
EGO حساس الأكسجين بالعادم
EGR Exhaust-gas recirculation This is an emissions control technique for reducing oxides of nitrogen emissions in the tailpipe. A small amount of exhaust gas is recirculated back into the intake manifold to dilute the incoming air/fuel mixture. Contrary to what you’d think, it has a cooling effect on combustion temperatures which helps reduce the formation of oxides of nitrogen (See NOX). The EGR valve is the main control device in this system.
EGR إعادة تدوير (استخدام) غاز العادم
EHC Electronic Height Control EHC systems exist under many trade names, including Variable Ride-Height Suspension (VRHS), Active Height Control (AHC), and pneumatic suspension systems.
EHC التحكم الإليكتروني في الارتفاع
EPA Environmental Protection Agency *Abbreviation for the Environmental Protection Agency, the government agency responsible for enforcing anti-pollution rules. The EPA requires all vehicle manufacturers to certify their new car as being in compliance with the applicable clean air standards for the year of manufacture. The manufacturer, in turn, must provide an "emissions" warranty on every vehicle they sell that guarantees free replacement of any emissions control device that might fail during that time. This coverage usually extends to such items as the computer control system, catalytic converter, fuel and ignition system (except the spark plugs and normal wear items).
EPA وكالة حماية البيئة
EPR Evaporator pressure regulator
EPR
EPS Electronic power steering
EPS مؤازر التوجيه الإليكتروني
ESC Electronic Stability Control ESC systems exist under many trade names, including Vehicle Stability Control (VSC), Electronic Stability Program (ESP), and Vehicle Stability Enhancement (VSE).
ESC نظام التحكم في الاتزان
ESP Electronic stability program ESP systems exist under many trade names, including Vehicle Stability Control (VSC), Electronic Stability Control (ESC), and Vehicle Stability Enhancement (VSE).
ESP برنامج الاتزان الإلكتروني
ETC (1) Electronic throttle control
ETC (1) التحكم الإليكتروني في صمام الخانق
ETC (2) Electronic Traction Control #
ETC (2) التحكم الإليكتروني في الجر
ETCU Electronic transmission control unit
ETCU وحدة التحكم الإليكترونية لنقل الحركة
ETD Emergency tensioning device
ETD جهاز طوارئ الشد
EV Electric vehicle

EV المركبة الكهربائية

F

FBD Free body diagram
FBD رسم الجسم الحر
FCV Fuel cell vehicle

FCV سيارة تستخدم خلية الوقود
FFV Flexible-fuel vehicle

FFV سيارة متعددة الوقود
FWD Front wheel drive #A means of driving a vehicle by applying engine power to the front wheels instead of the rear wheels. There are advantages and disadvantages to front-wheel drive. On the plus side, the advantages go mostly to the vehicle manufacturers because it makes it easier for them to package a vehicle engine/drivetrain/body combination more efficiently. In other words, the same basic engine/drivetrain package can be installed under a variety of "different" model cars. The same basic engine/transaxle package Chrysler developed for their Omni and Horizon (which they basically copied from Volkswagen) can be found under all their current front-wheel drives ranging from the mini-vans to the sports sedans. Thus a manufacturer can save a bundle in tooling and development when he wants to bring a new front-wheel drive model to the showroom floor. As far as FWD being superior to RWD, it’s mostly hype. Some people will argue that front-wheel drive handles better than rear-wheel drive while others will argue exactly the opposite. Porsche and Mercedes seem to be unimpressed by FWD, and most race cars are rear-wheel drive. On the negative side, some front-wheel drive cars have a tendency to "torque steer" (See Torque Steer), and transaxle problems can be very costly to repair because it often involves pulling the engine.
FWD سيارات الجر الأمامي
G

gpm gram per mile
gpm جرام لكل ميل مقدار الملوثات المبعثه من السيارة بالجرام لكل مسافة تحرك مقدارها ميل
GPS Global positioning system
GPS النظام العالمي لتحديد المكان
GVW Gross vehicle weight Abbreviation for gross vehicle weight. GVW is the weight of the vehicle plus the weight of all passengers and cargo up to the limit specified by the manufacturer
GVW الوزن الإجمالي للسيارة
H

HVAC Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Acronym for "Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning
HVAC التدفئة, التهوية, والتكييف
HC Hydro carbon A hydrocarbon (HC) is any kind of substance that contains hydrogen and carbon. Gasoline is a hydrocarbon. So is oil. When gasoline burns inside an engine, there is always a tiny amount that’s left over. If an engine is misfiring because of a fouled spark plug or a leaky valve, or if it has worn rings or valve guides and uses oil, quite a bit of unburned HC can pass through into the exhaust. Unburned HC is a major source of air pollution and is the primary source of smog in most urban areas. Various means are used to reduce the amount of HC an engine produces, the primary one of which is the catalytic converter. The converter reduces HC emissions by "reburning" and converting it into harmless water vapor
HC هيدرو كربون
HEV Hybrid electric vehicle

HEV مركبة كهربائية مهجنة
HO2S Heated Oxygen Sensor The HO2S is placed into the exhaust manifold. It detects the amount of oxygen in the exhaust gas compared to the outside air. The sensor has a closed-end tube made of ceramic zirconia. The zirconia generates voltage from approximately 1V in richer conditions to 0V in leaner conditions. The sensor signal is sent to the ECM. The ECM adjusts the injection pulse duration to achieve the ideal air-fuel ratio. The ideal air-fuel ratio occurs near the radical change from 1V to 0V.
HO2S حساس الأكسوجين
I

I Electric current Symbol of electric current

I تيار كهربائي رمز للتيار الكهربائي
IAT Intake air temperature Intake air temperature sensor. Also has a verity if names in the past (ACT, VAT, MCT, MAT and ATS) under OBD II guidelines, these parts are now called IATs.
The intake air temperature sensor is mounted to the air duct housing. The sensor detects intake air temperature and transmits a signal to the ECM. The temperature-sensing unit uses a thermistor that is sensitive to the change in temperature. Electrical resistance of the thermistor decreases in response to the temperature rise.
IAT حساس درجة حرارة الهواء المسحوب
IC Integrated circuit

IC دائرة متكاملة
ICE Internal combustion engine

ICE محرك احتراق داخلي
IFS Independent Front Suspension
IFS تعليق حر أمامي
IRS Independent Rear Suspension
IRS تعليق حر خلفي
J

J Joule Energy unit (1 Joule = 1 Newton meter)
J جول وحدة قياس الطاقة ( 1 جول = 1 نيوتن متر)
K

k Kilo 1 kilo = 1000
k كيلو 1 كيلو = 1000
KDSS Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System Toyota also demonstrated its Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System (KDSS). By allowing the decoupling of the front and rear stabilizer bars, KDSS allows greater suspension articulation (movement, that is) off-road.
The KDSS-assisted truck was able to keep all its tires in contact with the ground due to the greater suspension travel afforded by the system, while the one with KDSS switched off has a rear tire clawing at thin air.
Another benefit of KDSS is that it allows larger stabilizer bars for improved on-road handling via decreased body roll.
KDSS
KPI King pin inclination The angle formed by a line that runs through the king pin in the steering knuckle on a truck with an I-Beam axle. It’s the same as the steering axis inclination (SAI).
KPI ميل ................
KS Knock sensor The knock sensor is mounted on the engine block. It detects the vibration caused by detonation.
KS حساس الصفع
L

l Liter
l لتر
LCD Liquid crystal display A "Liquid Crystal Display" is a type of electronic display that forms opaque or dull-colored letters or numbers on various backgrounds. LCD displays are popular for digital dashboards, but they are not as readable in direct sunlight as LED displays
LCD شاشة عرض
LED Light emitting diode A light emitting diode emits light when current is passed through it in the forward direction.
A "Light Emitting Diode" is an electronic light bulb of sorts that produces colored light. You’ll find LEDs used in the center high mounted stop light on many vehicles, and used as indicator lights in some instrumentation. LEDs are also used in some vehicle speed sensors and in some electronic ignitions.
LED دايود يضيء عند مرور التيار الكهربائي به
LEV Low emission vehicle

LEV سيارة منخفضة الملوثات
LNG Liquefied natural gas
LNG غاز طبيعي مسال
LPG Liquefied petroleum gas
LPG غاز بترولي مسال
LSD Limited-slip differential #
LSD التروس الفروقية محدودة الانزلاق
M

m meter Length unit
m متر وحدة قياس الطول
M+S Mud and snow Tire rating for mud and snow M+S, MS, M/S or M&S
M+S طين و ثلوج إطار يمكنه السير في الطين والثلوج
MAF Mass ِAir flow sensor The mass airflow sensor is placed in the stream of intake air. It measures the intake flow rate by measuring a part of the entire intake flow. It consists of a hot wire that is supplied with electric current from the ECM. The temperature of the hot wire is controlled by the ECM a certain amount. The heat generated by the hot wire is reduced as the intake air flows around it. The more air, the greater the heat loss. Therefore, the ECM must supply more electric current to maintain the temperature of the hot wire as airflow increases. The ECM detects the airflow by means of this current change.
MAF حساس كتلة انسياب الهواء
MAP Manifold absolute pressure (sensor) A fuel injection system that opens its injectors in pairs or groups a sufficient amount of time prior to intake valve opening so the intake port is filled with fuel before the valve opens.
The Manifold Absolute Pressure sensor measures changes in the intake manifold pressure resulting from engine load and speed changes. The computer sends a 5-volt reference signal to the MAP sensor. As pressure changes in the intake manifold occur, the electrical resistance of the MAP sensor also changes. By monitoring the sensor output voltage, the computer can determine the manifold absolute pressure. The higher the MAP voltage output the lower the engine vacuum, which requires more fuel. The lower the MAP voltage output the higher the engine vacuum, which requires less fuel. Under certain conditions, the MAP sensor is also used to measure barometric pressure. This allows the computer to automatically adjust for different altitudes. The computer uses the MAP sensor to control fuel delivery and ignition timing.
MAP الضغط المطلق للعادم
MDS Multiple Displacement System Cylinder Deactivation, Displacement On Demand (DOD), or Variable Cylinder Management.
MDS نظام السعة المتغيرة
ME Mechanical Efficiency
ME الكفاءة الميكانيكية
MFI (MPI) Multi-port Fuel Injection Abbreviation for Multi-port Fuel Injection, a type of fuel injection system that has one injector for each engine cylinder. Each injector sprays its fuel directly into the intake port in the cylinder head. Multi-port fuel injection is considered to be the "hot" setup because it provides better cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution for more power.
MFI (MPI) حقن متعدد الثغرات
MPG Mile per gallon Abbreviation for Miles Per Gallon. A vehicle’s fuel economy is determined by a number of factors including the size of the engine, the type of carburetion used, the weight of the vehicle, the type of transmission used (manual or automatic), the final drive ratio, the size and type of tires used, tire inflation pressures, aerodynamic streamlining of the body, the driving habits of the driver, the kind of road surface and terrain upon which the vehicle is driven, the speed at which its driven, and environmental factors such as temperature, wind and humidity. Taking all these into consideration, it’s no wonder the EPA says "the mileage you get may vary from the official EPA estimates."
MPG ميل لكل جالون مقياس اقتصاديات الوقود = عدد الأميال المقطوعة عند استهلاك 1 جالون وقود.
MPI (MFI) Multiport fuel injection

MPI (MFI) بخاخات الوقود متعددة الأماكن
MPV Multi-purpose vehicle

MPV مركبة متعددة الأغراض
N

N Newton Unit of measuring force (1 Newton = 1 kg m/s.s)
N نيوتن وحدة قياس القوة ( 1 نيوتن = 1 كجم متر/ ث.ث)
N Neutral #
N نقلة الحياد
NCFR No cause for removal
NCFR لا يوجد سبب للرفع
NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration *Abbreviation for the National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration. This is the government agency that is responsible for making and policing safety rules for all vehicles. NHTSA is the agency that can order a vehicle manufacturer to issue a safety recall.
NHTSA الإدارة القومية لسلامة المرور على الطرق السريعة
O

O2 Oxygen
O2 أوكسجين
OBD On board diagnostics
OBD جهاز مركب بالسيارة لتشخيص الأعطال
OBD II On board diagnostics II
OBD II جهاز (متطور) مركب بالسيارة لتشخيص الأعطال جهاز مركب بالسيارة لتشخيص الأعطال, مركب في معظم سيارات البنزين موديلات ما بعد سنة 1996 وبه توحيد للمصطلحات والتوصيلات بين الموديلات المختلفة.
O.D. Outside diameter
O.D. القطر الخارجي
OD Over Drive (transmission)
OD نقلة فوق المباشر (ناقل الحركة)
OE Original equipment
OE المعدة الأصلية
OEM Original equipment manufacturer
OEM مصنعي المعدة الأصليين
OHC Over head cam

OHC عمود كامة علوي
ohm (Resistance measuring unit) The unit of electrical resistance measurement. One ohm is the resistance that will allow one ampere to flow when pushed by one volt.
ohm (وحدة قياس المقاومة الكهربائية)
OHV Over head valve

OHV صمام علوي
ORV Off-Road Vehicle An off-road vehicle is considered to be any type of vehicle which is capable of driving off paved or gravel surface.
ORV سيارة خارج الطرق
P

Pa Pascal Unit of pressure (1 Pa = 1 N/m2), (1 MPa = 1000,000 Pa = 1 N/mm2)
Pa بسكال وحدة ضغط (1 بسكال = 1 نيوتن/ المتر المربع), ( 1 ميجا بسكال = 1000,000 بسكال = 1 نيوتن/ مليمتر المربع)
PCM Power control module
Powertrain control module PCM is a computer that manages engine and power train systems. Within engine management, the PCM is responsible for fuel delivery, ignition timing and some emission control devices.
PCM موديول للتحكم في مجموعة نقل القدرة
PCV Positive crank case ventilation
PCV نظام تهوية علبة عمود المرفق
PFI Port fuel injection

PFI حقن الوقود في الاسطوانة عند صمام السحب
PLV Pressure limiting valve This unit reduces the air pressure supply to the front axle of the towing vehicle is de-coupled in order to reduce the braking power and maintain vehicle stability of the now much lighter vehicle.
PLV صمام تحديد الضغط
ppm Parts per million Measure of air pollution. It is common practice to express the quantity of a gaseous pollutant in the air as parts per million.
ppm أجزاء لكل مليون (قياس التلوث في الهواء)
PSD Power split device
PSD وحدة توزيع القدرة
PSI (psi) Pound per square inch
PSI (psi) رطل على البوصة المربعة
PSPS Power Steering Pressure Switch The power steering oil pressure switch is attached to the power steering high-pressure tube and detects a power steering load. When a power steering load is detected, it signals the ECM. The ECM adjusts the idle speed for the increased load.
PSPS مفتاح ضغط مؤازر التوجيه
PV photovoltaic

PV خلية كهروضوئية
Q

Q Quantity of electric charge Symbol of electric charge

Q كمية شحنة الكهرباء رمز كمية شحنة الكهرباء
R

R (1) Radial
R (1) قطري إطار قطري
R (2) Reverse #
R (2) النقلة الخلفية
RAM Random access memory The microprocessor can both read and write data to each memory location.
RAM ذاكرة التعامل
RAV
RAV
RC Reserve Capacity RC is the number of minutes a fully charged battery at 80 degrees F (26.7 degrees C) can be discharged at 25 amps until the voltage falls below 10.5 volts.
RC القدرة الإحتياطية
RFT Run Flat Tire
RFT إطار يمكنه السير في حالة بدون نفخ
ROM Read only memory

ROM
RPM (rpm) Revolutions per minute
RPM (rpm) عدد اللفات في الدقيقة
RV Recreational Vehicle

RV سيارات الرحلات (المبيت)
RWAL Rear Wheel Anti Lock brake
RWAL نظام دفع العجلات (الخلفية)
RWD Rear wheel drive #
RWD سيارات الجر الخلفي
S

SAE Society of Automotive Engineering *
SAE جمعية هندسة السيارات
SAI Steering axis inclination Is the amount that the spindle support arm leans in the top. SAI is also known as ball joint inclination BJI or king pin inclination KPI
SAI ميل محور التوجيه (زوايا العجل)
SBC Sensotronic Brake Control

SBC التحكم بالإحساس بالفرامل
SFC Specific Fuel Consumption Specific fuel consumption is equal to the mass rate of the fuel consumption divided by the engine brake power
SFC الاستهلاك النوعي للوقود هو خارج قسمة معدل كتلة الوقود المستخدم على القدرة الفرملية للمحرك
SFI Sequential fuel injectors

SFI حقن وقود متوالي
SLA Short-long arm Short-long arm suspension system
SLA نظام التعليق ذو ذراع طويل وذراع قصير
SMG Sequential Manual Gearbox #The Sequential Manual Gearbox enables sporty, rapid gear changes through all six gears via the steering wheel paddles or selector lever, without the use of a clutch. Select Dynamic Driving Control (Sport button) for faster engine response and even more spontaneous driving enjoyment.
SMG صندوق تروس نقل يدوي متتالي
SOHC Single over head cam

SOHC نظام عمود كامة علوي مفرد
SSF Static Stability Factor It is the calculation of a vehicle, at rest, rollover resistance
SSF = T / 2 H
where, T is the "track width" of the vehicle and H is the "height of center of center if gravity" of the vehicle.
The lower the SSF number, the more likely the vehicle is to rollover in a "single- vehicle crash"
SSF عامل الاتزان الساكن
SST Special Service Tools
SST عدة الخدمة الخاصة
SUV Sport utility vehicle

SUV سيارة الأنشطة الرياضية
T

TAC Thermal Air Cleaner Carbureted and throttle-body injection engines have heated air controls in the air cleaner. This is called a TAC.
TAC متحكم في حرارة الهواء موجود بمنقي الهواء (نظام التحكم في التلوث)
TCS (ASR) Traction control system Traction control system prevents wheels from spinning in slippery conditions by automatically cutting engine power, lightly applying the brakes or both.
TCS (ASR) نظام التحكم في الجر
TDC Top dead center

TDC النقطة الميتة العليا
TE Thermal Efficiency
TE الكفاءة الحرارية
TPMS Tire pressure monitoring system

TPMS نظام متابعة نفخ الإطار
TPS Throttle position sensor The throttle position sensor responds to the accelerator pedal movement. This sensor is a kind of potentiometer that transforms the throttle position into output voltage, and emits the voltage signal to the ECM. In addition, the sensor detects the opening and closing speed of the throttle valve and feeds the voltage signal to the ECM. The ECM receiving the signal from the throttle position sensor determines idle position of the throttle valve. This sensor controls engine operation such as fuel cut. On the other hand, the "Wide open and closed throttle position switch", which is built into the throttle position sensor unit, is not used for engine control.
TPS حساس تحديد وضع صمام الخنق
TSB Technical Service Bulletins
TSB نشرات الخدمة الفنية
TVS Thermal Vacuum Switch The manifold heat control valve routs exhaust gas under the floor of the intake manifold when the engine is cold. This is improves the vaporization of the cold fuel. This is also called an early fuel evaporation (EFE) vlave.
TVS مفتاح يعمل بالتخلخل لتسخين الشحنة (نظام التحكم في الملوثات)
TVV Thermal Vacuum Valve (Pollution control system) Also called PVS ported vacuum switch. This prevents vacuum from operating the EGR valve before the engine is wormed up.
TVV صمام يعمل بالحرارة للتحكم في التخلخل لتشغيل نظام التحكم في تدوير غازات العادم
U

U-joint Universal joint #
U-joint وصلة عمود الإدارة (الكردان)
UTQG
UTQGS Uniform Tire Quality Grading Uniform Tire Quality Grading System This grading system, allows consumers to compare tire treadwear, traction performance, and temperature resistance. The federal government requires tire manufacturers to grade their tires in these three areas and place the information on the sidewall of the tire.
UTQG
UTQGS التقييم الموحد لجودة الإطار
النظام الموحد لتقييم جودة الإطار
V

V Volt Unit of measuring electric potential

V فولت وحدة قياس الجهد الكهربائي
VE Volumetric Efficiency Volumetric efficiency is the ratio of the volume of air drawn into a cylinder to the piston displacement.
VE الكفاءة الحجمية (كفاءة الامتلاء) هي النسبة بين حجم الهواء (الشحنة) الداخلة للاسطوانة (المحرك) إلى سعة الاسطوانة (المحرك).
VDIM Vehicle dynamic integrated management VDIM, Toyota's new system optimizes vehicle control by adding new features — electronically controlled brakes (ECB) and electronic power steering (EPS) and having them work in concert with the stability control (VSC), ABS, EBD and BA systems. Faster processing speed also promises more transparent operation of the system.
VDIM إدارة الديناميكية المتكاملة للسيارة
VDIS Vehicle dynamic integrated system
VDIS النظام الديناميكي المتكامل للسيارة
VGRS (1) Variable gear ratio steering The steering gear ratio will be changed in accordance with vehicle speed
VGRS (1) توجيه متغير النسبة تتغير نسبة التخفيض في التوجيه تبعاً لسرعة السيارة
VGRS (2) Variable gear ratio system #
VGRS (2) نظام متغير نسبة التخفيض
VIN Vehicle identification number
VIN رقم هوية المركبة (الرقم التعريفي للمركبة)
VRHS Variable Ride-Height Suspension VRHS systems exist under many trade names, including Electronic Height Control (EHC), Active Height Control (AHC), and pneumatic suspension systems.
VRHS التعليق متغير ارتفاع الركوب
VSA Vehicle stability assist
VSA مساعدة أتزان المركبة
VSC (1) Vehicle system control The VSC is the brains of the hybrid car. It helps to manage charging , drive assist, and engine starting functions. It shuts the engine down during coasting and at stoplight to save fuel. It also converts the traction motor into a generator during braking to help recharging the batteries.
VSC (1) نظام التحكم في المركبة
VSC (2) Vehicle stability control VSC systems exist under many trade names, including Electronic Stability Program (ESP), Electronic Stability Control (ESC), and Vehicle Stability Enhancement (VSE).
VSC (2) نظام التحكم في اتزان المركبة
VSE Vehicle Stability Enhancement ESP systems exist under many trade names, including Vehicle Stability Control (VSC), Electronic Stability Control (ESC), and Vehicle Stability Enhancement (VSE).
VSE تحسينات اتزان المركبة
VSS Vehicle speed sensor The vehicle speed sensor is installed in the transaxle. It contains a pulse generator that provides a vehicle speed signal to the speedometer. The speedometer then sends a signal to the ECM
VSS حساس سرعة السيارة
VVT Variable Valve Timing Valve timing is adjusted on intake, and valves and there is the Dual VVT-i engine, Valve timing is adjusted on both intake and exhaust valves
VVT نظام صمامات متغير التوقيت
VVT-i Variable Valve Timing with intelligence
VVT-i نظام صمامات متغير التوقيت مع ذكاء
VVTL-i Variable Valve Timing & Lift - Intelligent
VVTL-i نظام صمامات متغير التوقيت ومسافة الفتح مع ذكاء
W

W Watt Unit of power (1 W = 1 kg m/s), (1 W = 1 J/s)
W وات وحدة القدرة ( 1 وات = 1 كجم متر/ث)
WSS Wheel speed sensor

WSS حساس سرعة العجل
ْX

XUV Crossover Utility Vehicle XUV: A crossover SUV (also called CUV for Crossover Utility Vehicle) is an automobile with a sport utility vehicle appearance but is built upon a more economical and fuel-efficient car-based platform.
XUV
Y

Y
Y
Z

ZEV Zero emission vehicle

ZEV مركبة بدون ملوثات
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